Dec. 4 Webinar: Best Practices in Wood and Pellet Stove Programs

The University of Maryland Extension Woodland Stewardship Education program will host a one-hour webinar on Thursday, December 4th from 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. to provide an overview of the “best practices” in wood and pellet stove incentive programs across the United States. 
Sign up here.
As renewable energy programs grow around the country, more and more states are including incentives for wood or pellet boilers and stoves. Unlike other household appliances, such as refrigerators, furnaces or washing machines, wood heating equipment have no “Energy Star” labels for consumers to consult to make energy efficiency comparisons. Consequently, several states have devised a range of methods to determine the eligibility of cleaner and more efficient stoves and boilers.
This webinar will explore the features of these programs, and will use Maryland’s stove incentive program as an example of how one state met its goals for ensuring consumers purchase the most efficient appliances available. The speakers will identify what they see as emerging best practices in stove and boiler incentive programs as these initiatives become more mainstream.
This webinar features presentations from Jonathan Kays, University of Maryland Extension Natural Resource Extension Specialist; John Ackerly, President of the Alliance for Green Heat; and Emilee Van Norden, Clean Energy Program Manager of the Maryland Energy Administration.
The webinar is free and open to the public.  Sign up now to reserve a spot.
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A Reaction to “Ideal Procedures in Alter Out Programs”

This is a reaction by Sylvia Shultz of the non-revenue Cleanse Air Fairbanks to our Weblog Publish on Greatest Methods in Adjust out Packages. &nbspSylvia will take concern with our assertion that Fairbanks employs a strategy that we think about a “very best practice.” &nbspHer believed provoking response is reproduced below. If others have substantive responses, make sure you send out them and we will think about reprinting them.

“Thanks for sharing your weblog publish and asking for comments.
In your site, you wrote that “Fairbanks could be the ideal case in point of efficient prioritizing based mostly on location as an alternative of utilizing a very first-occur, first-provide model.” &nbsp
The only “best instance” of techniques for the Fairbanks PM2.five non-attainment spot is the Town of Fairbanks ban on hydronic heaters. Other than that,&nbsp”greatest” at losing general public funds is all the adjust-out system can declare. $ 7.eight million has been put in on adjust-outs, with $ one million a lot more in the 2015 Funds Budget (expected to be signed by the Governor). It is a exclusive between change-out plans in a PM2.five non-attainment location as there is tiny to avert rolling again to the most polluting heaters and boilers.
The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) and the State of Alaska proceed to let any strong gas or other heating device to be put in in this serious PM2.five non-attainment region. Even so, in&nbsp2009, the Metropolis of Fairbanks banned new hydronic heaters. Outside the metropolis restrictions, without having controls, PM2.five levels are much increased. But other than that single provision in town code, set up of coal, wood, pellet, biomass, or waste oil burners for household and commercial&nbspuse is unrestricted. New devices of every taste, from $ fifty barrel stove kits&nbspto $ 20,000+ coal hydronic heaters, continue to be mounted. FNSB paid inhabitants to put in wood boilers, the Condition paid&nbspfor $ twenty,000 coal boilers (it will not likely say how numerous), and&nbspschools had been&nbspconverted to wooden (despite the fact that that didn’t perform, and now are changing to organic fuel with state funding). Condition funding also paid for unreliable and ineffective ClearStak catalyst retrofits on wooden and coal boilers.
So, although it is right that FNSB employs location-based mostly prioritization for&nbspthe voluntary adjust-out plan to goal air pollution hot zones, any variety of heater or boiler may possibly&nbspbe mounted in these regions, as prolonged as it is exterior the City of Fairbanks.&nbspHighly polluting heaters can be mounted by homeowners who been paid $ eleven,000 to exchange a hydronic heater. It is nonsense to herald Fairbanks’ prioritization approach as a “ideal techniques” design when there is no restriction on new installations, even in scorching zones. PM2.5 calculated in the cleanest region, the City of Fairbanks, rank amid the worst in the country. Displays from neighborhoods exterior the town limits rank amid&nbspthe worst in the globe.
A study in 2010 for the Conditionbelieved&nbspa overall of three,360 uncertified woodstoves, coal heaters, and outside wood boilers in the PM2.5 nonattainment region. After $ seven.eight million has been put in, that is in excess of $ 2,300 for each uncertified heater. Paying another $ 1 million would deliver the overall for each uncertified heater to over $ two,600. Yet,&nbspmany uncertified heaters remain and more carry on to be put in. Ineffectively throwing income at a severe dilemma need to not be held up as a greatest exercise. Most communities could not afford to undertake this sort of an costly technique that demonstrates such inadequate benefits.
You should assessment the Circumstance Research on two Central Boiler 2300, Phase two certified,&nbspin Fairbanks AK. It was submitted to EPA as component of our NSPS responses. EPA seems unaware of the issues and the&nbspjudge’s get in&nbspAlaska v. Straughn that declared the operation of the boilers to be a “general public nuisance.” EPA’s proposed Stage one emission common would let hydronic heaters that have even higher emission levels than individuals in Alaska v. Straughn.
The FNSB adjust-out plan compensated Straughn $ ten,000 to remove one boiler, and agreed to shell out $ 10,000 for the next. This was right after the judge requested the proprietor to stop procedure of the boilers and later on a settlement limited the qualities to oil or gas heating. Paying to take away and ruin units that are unable to even be used at those houses serves only to avert them from getting sold and installed in other places in the PM2.five nonattainment area, even up coming doorway.
Thanks for your reporting and focus to depth.
Sylvia Schultz

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Greatest Procedures in Alter Out Programs (and Why Some Packages Underperform)

Adjust-out programs are now commonplace in the wood stove neighborhood, particularly in the Northwest, with Libby, MT becoming the maximum profile one.&nbsp In Libby and elsewhere, altering out old uncertified stoves to new EPA certified stoves has demonstrably contributed to cleaner air top quality.&nbsp Generally, wooden stove modify-out programs begin with govt funding, and then leverage in-variety donations from wooden stove producers, stove suppliers and other folks.&nbsp

Even so, change-out programs occasionally supply much less air top quality advantages than envisioned.&nbsp And, for every ton of particulate issue removed from the environment, they can be really expensive. &nbspRaw quantities from Washington State primarily based on money they put in as opposed to believed emission reduction arrived to practically $ 50,000 for every ton of particulate. &nbspWhen Washington Condition utilizes the EPA methodology for calculating expense for each ton, the indicate cost was amongst $ 14,000 and $ 19,000 per ton.&nbsp


In addition to the vintage alter out plan designed to lessen abnormal smoke in particular city, valley or region, alter out applications can just help rural homes far more successfully use a regional renewable power supply. &nbspAlso, manufacturers and merchants can undertake them in the gradual, summer time year.


In evaluating the effectiveness of adjust-out packages, the Alliance for Green Warmth discovered a deficiency of arduous investigation or discussion about how to ideal attain air good quality improvements. Some states are beginning to create far more&nbspmodern attributes&nbspin incentive programs rather of subsequent the sample established by the EPA and HPBA. Right here are seven methods that will boost alter out plans. &nbspVirtually none of these strategies, that a lot of take into account important areas of alter outs, can be identified on the&nbspEPA&nbspor HPBA alter out pages. &nbspExpect drive back from local authorities organizations, HPBA and/or merchants on some of these details, but all of them are getting to be a lot more and a lot more acknowledged.
one. Managing long term installations of uncertified stoves
As well a lot of change out applications arise in spots were individuals are even now permitted to put in outdated, next hand stoves or even unqualified out of doors boilers.&nbsp Reports touting the success of modify-outs in Pennsylvania, Indiana and the Fantastic Lakes states really do not even point out that although previous stoves are becoming eliminated, traditional out of doors wood boilers are getting set up in the quite same communities.&nbsp In Vermont and Keene, NH, a lot more uncertified wooden stoves may have been installed given that their packages finished than ended up removed.&nbsp Before investing minimal dollars on change-outs, money need to be centered in locations where the locality has adequate commitment to clean air to stipulate that old, uncertified stoves and unqualified out of doors boilers can not be put in in the potential.
2.&nbsp&nbspPrioritize which stoves get transformed out first
We believe that some packages inappropriately employed a very first-arrive, first-served strategy when stoves employed as a primary of sole heating supply in more densely populated places could have been targeted very first.&nbsp Although this does not utilize to valleys with inversions like Libby, the place each stove is equally critical, in places like Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire, exactly where cash can operate out swiftly, stoves in the middle of towns which are employed as a primary heating gadget should be presented precedence.&nbsp Some new epidemiology investigation is coming out stating that stove change-outs do not necessarily boost indoor air top quality and the main advantage is to enhance out of doors air quality that impacts the local community at-big.&nbsp In modify-outs that cover multi-county places, or even statewide, as in Vermont’s program, we feel focusing on stoves in cities is warranted.&nbsp Very last precedence must be stoves in isolated residences that only use wood as a secondary warmth resource.&nbsp Fairbanks may be the best instance of efficient prioritizing based mostly on location rather of making use of a first-come, 1st-provide product.
three.&nbsp&nbspEmphasis on wooden, not just stoves
Some professionals are now pondering if a $ 150 rebate to assist develop a wooden get rid of to preserve wooden dry might create comparable air high quality results as a $ one,000 rebate for a stove.&nbsp It is properly recognized that the gear is only fifty percent the battle, and the other 50 % is the gasoline and the operator.&nbsp Requiring firewood sellers to carry a dampness meter when delivering wooden and producing down dampness content on the product sales receipt may possibly also be a excellent approach. Adjust out applications could prioritize homes with woodsheds, to aid make certain that subsidizing a new stove will result in decreased smoke from the house. &nbspOr residences with woodsheds could receive a increased rebate, which incentivizes appropriate storage and educates individuals about its importance.
four. Correct-size the rebate and need partial payment
When rebates vanish in a couple of hours or even a few weeks, it probably means the rebate was way too generous and a lesser rebate could have resulted in much more adjust outs.&nbsp Also, fairly than offered a set amount, packages that give fifty% or even 35% of the new stove need to be regarded, where feasible.&nbsp When more compact, much more targeted populations are included like Keene, NH, greater rebates are needed, as they also are with low-earnings populations.
five. Require that new stoves meet stricter emissions and performance requirements
Practically all modify-out programs now require that the new EPA certified stove be four.five grams or considerably less, but some are starting to call for three or 2.5 grams an hour or less. Pellet stoves, which run in the discipline significantly&nbspmore like they did in the testing lab than wood stoves, need to be held to two.five or two grams an hour at the most. &nbspSome states, with different degrees of accomplishment, are starting up to experiment with minimum efficiency specifications and this is very likely to be a common requirement sometime in 2015. &nbspOregon provides a&nbspbetter rebate&nbsplevel for stoves made by companies who agree to share confirmed efficiencies with their buyers. &nbspMost stove manufacturers will not launch this info, preferring to use unverified and frequently exaggerated numbers. &nbspMaryland&nbsprequires a highest of 3 grams for wood stoves and 2 for pellets. (The Maryland program is a renewable vitality software and does not require the alter out of an outdated stove, but about 50 percent the outdated stoves are disabled and wrecked in any case.)
6.&nbspCall for equally wood and pellet stoves be EPA certified
Few programs have required that pellet stoves be EPA qualified despite the fact that there are significant benefits of this. &nbspEPA certified pellet stoves are usually a lot more successful than their exempt counterparts since exempt pellet stoves frequently use the 35 to one air to fuel ratio loophole to steer clear of certification but all that air lowers effectiveness. &nbspSome pellet stoves are as low as 40% efficient, and a lot of are in the 50s and 60s, when they easily can be in the 70s. &nbspHouseholds ought to not be unwittingly backed to get a low-performance pellet stove that will saddle them with considerably larger fuel costs for a long time to occur. &nbspUnfortunately, large and small pellet stove companies presently self-report efficiencies and are notoriously adept at&nbspexaggerating and inflating&nbsptheir effectiveness numbers. &nbspThe EPA and DOE have carried out minor to counteract this and have at times contributed to&nbspthe issue.
7.&nbspIntegrate wood stove inspections in strength audit approach
If your condition is notably fascinated in retiring older stoves, it is crucial that point out backed vitality audits require that the auditor inspect the wood stove, just like they verify other HVAC gear. &nbspAuditors can teach property owners about the relevance of upgrading to safer, more efficient tools, spot hazardous installations, aid in taking away unsafe stoves and sometimes help get stove upgrades to be backed via low desire loans or other plans. &nbspThe Developing Performance Institute (BPI) is taking the direct to build&nbsptips for energy auditors&nbspto inspect wood stoves. &nbspIn modern years, energy auditors have&nbspfailed to contain&nbspwood stoves in hundreds of 1000’s of properties.
Background
Based on an casual study of ten change out programs, we found the typical rebate delegated for a new wood stove was $ 627 pounds, but ranged from $ three hundred to $ one,050 per stove and considerably more for low-cash flow adjust outs. The median rebate was $ 670.&nbsp Nine out of the ten plans surveyed presented extra support to low -cash flow applicants, and 3 out of 10 supplied full rebates.
Alter out applications, depending on their measurement and scope, can price a fantastic deal of income to run and market. The regular value per alter out differs drastically in between packages. Libby, Montana had a huge budget and was servicing a low-income populace so the cost for every stove was increased.&nbsp Pittsburgh program’s average cost was relatively reduced, at $ 770 for each change out.&nbsp&nbsp Increased fees for each stove do not necessarily mean they were much less effectively run, as there are so a lot of variables and so a lot require for high priced academic packages that concentrate on home owners who are not shifting out stoves, but could be emitting a great deal of surplus smoke.&nbsp

Click for more substantial model.

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More States Start Innovative Stove Incentive Programs

More states are starting or changing their stove incentive programs to tighten eligibility, require professional installation, and often, to install an outside air supply.  Until recently, incentive programs only required that wood stoves be EPA certified.  And even though the EPA certifies many pellet stoves, it does not recommend EPA certified pellet stoves be required in incentive or change-out programs.  Change-out programs designed and managed by the EPA and HPBA allowed virtually any new wood or pellet stove to be installed.  The new trend led by states is changing all that.
The Oregon program, which began in 2013, is the most complex in terms of requirements, but provides up to a $ 1,500 tax credit.  To date, the highest tax credit awarded was $ 960, according to Deby Davis of the Oregon Department of Energy. 
For larger tax credits, the Oregon program requires that stoves have actual measured efficiencies and be listed on the EPA list of certified wood stoves.  Only 19 stoves to date have provided the EPA with actual efficiencies and those brands are getting a bump in sales in Oregon and Maine.  If the manufacturer of the stove has not provided the EPA with an actual measured efficiency, the Oregon tax credit is $ 144 for non-catalytic stoves, $ 216 for catalytic and $ 288 for pellet stoves. 
The Maine program had required actual efficiencies but is in the process of changing to require emission limits only.  The emission limits of 3.5 grams per hour for wood stoves and 2.5 for pellet stoves mirror the emission limits in Oregon.  Despite a very generous $ 5,000 rebate for residential boilers, the Maine program provides only $ 250 per stove and it is still unclear how successful the program is.
The Maryland program is slightly stricter on emissions, with an upper threshold of 3.0 for wood and 2.0 for pellet stoves, but does not require pellet stoves to be EPA certified.  As a result, it may be incentivizing some very low efficiency pellet stoves.  The program is unique in that the $ 500 – $ 700 rebate is only available to homes that do not have access to natural gas.  None of the three programs require that an uncertified stove be traded in for a new stove.
 
These programs mark a trend towards stricter eligibility for stoves incentivized with taxpayer funds.  But managers of these programs are struggling with some unintended barriers and consequences.  In Oregon, the program excludes all pellet stoves but one because only one pellet stove manufacturer, Seraph, has provided verified efficiency to the EPA.  In Maine, the program initially required stoves to be installed by contractors with a solid fuel license, but did not provide for hearth professionals to do installations.  That glitch is being changed as well.
The tax credit calculation in Oregon favors non-catalytic stoves over the cleaner catalytic or pellet stoves, which puts the agency in charge of the program, the Oregon Department of Energy, at odds with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.  The Oregon tax credit amount is based on the efficiency improvement over the EPA’s default efficiency.  So a non-cat tested at 70% would have a 7% improvement over the 63% default.  A pellet stove tested at 75% would not have any improvement over the 78% EPA default efficiency.  The program thus unintentionally puts pellet stoves at a disadvantage because the EPA set unrealistically high default efficiency for pellet stoves. 
Oregon, Maine and Maryland require professional installation and Oregon and Maine require inclusion of outside air supply.  In Oregon, this could mean simply a $ 35 vent that provides air within several feet of the stove.  All three programs avoid “free riders” to some extent because even if the incentive does not lead to the sale, the state achieves important goals of professional installation, cleaner appliances, outside air where applicable, etc.  Free riders is a term used for consumers who get a rebate but who would have made the same purchase regardless of the incentive.
The proposed new EPA stove regulations will require all stoves to be tested and listed for efficiency, but there is widespread concern that the EPA will not require — or even have the capacity to make — efficiencies available to the public within the first year or two after promulgation.  This is leading Oregon and other states to consider keeping or even starting to use efficiency requirements in their incentive programs. 


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Progressive Wonderful Particulate Measurement Programs for the Wooden Stove Layout Challenge

Simply click here to obtain the poster.&nbspText with out photos and charts is reproduced underneath.

R. Trojanowskione, T. Butcherone, Youngjun Ahntwo, C. Brown1, J. Wongtwo, and G. Wei1
one. Vitality Conversion Team, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, United states of america
2. Chemical and Molecular Engineering Department, Stony Brook College, Stony Brook, New York, United states
Summary
As the price of heating oil has improved in the US, far more citizens are returning to wood heat. Most present wooden stoves date from before the EPA applied emissions certification demands for these gadgets. Even those wooden stoves that meet up with EPA’s Period II specifications typically have unacceptably large emissions when in use. This is because of to numerous aspects including gasoline good quality, operator habits and design. Whilst the EPA is creating new laws, the examination method employed for certification is not consultant of in-use overall performance and the functionality criteria in the check slide short of substantial efficiency or reduced emissions.
Styles that enhance combustion and emission performance, thermal performance, and operational variability are required in the U.S. heating market place. The Alliance for Environmentally friendly Warmth and Popular Mechanics Magazine has initiated the Wood Stove Design and style Obstacle (WSDC) to address these wants by developing a competitors for companies, innovators, and university groups operating towards these targets.
This task seeks to build a WSDC power effectiveness and emissions tests protocol which minimizes the variability in gas and operator. The present check technique (EPA Technique 28 WHH) entails testing stoves using a dilution tunnel. Looking at that the WSDC is held at the shopping mall in Washington DC, this examination approach does not match. Recently, new particulate measurement techniques have been launched in Europe, both the Wöhler SM 500 and testo 380. Each analyzers are a minimal expense choice and offer the edge of ease and portability. To figure out the accuracy, precision, instrument variety, and applicability for use in the WSDC for thermal efficiency and emissions, these portable immediate measure analyzers, an evaluation will be executed even though simultaneously using the common techniques for deciding the emissions.
There is, also, interest in the prospective use of instruments of this sort for area analysis of the functionality of both stoves and boilers.
&nbsp&nbspDetermine one: Wöhler SM500 suspended particulate analyser (remaining) and testo 380 wonderful particle analyzer (appropriate)
The technology of these methods contain around true-time, sub-microgram sensitivity, and is the only filter-based mostly mass monitoring technology which has these houses and does not count on questionable, surrogate measurements for mass [one]. Each and every method utilizes the concepts of oscillating microbalances, using an inertial mass weighing basic principle. To get started, the method oscillates at is natural frequency exactly, as an air stream is drawn via the system, particles deposit on a filter or plate which final results in a reduction of frequency oscillation. By measuring the alter in frequency, the total mass of the particulate subject gathered is identified. Combining this number with the quantity of air drawn by means of the technique provides the particle mass focus (mg/cubic meter). The adjust in mass could be identified from the adhering to equation:
Exactly where, Δm = alter in mass of particulates, fi = first oscillation frequency, ff = oscillation frequency soon after the selection of particulates, K0 = technique continuous of the oscillator method, Kcor = error correction purpose, and T= temperature of&nbsp the oscillator technique.
Each techniques measure particulate subject (PM) in flue gas, O2, CO, draft, and stack temperature. The Wöhler utilizes an oscillating filter sensor which collects the particulates. The Testo also employs an oscillating particulate sensor, but the particulates are impacted on a plate. A correlation correction for the anticipated low selection efficiency of the extremely good particles is employed. Similar to the recent EPA examination technique, the Testo method dilutes the exhaust gasoline, the Wöhler unit does not. Each methods are capable to generate reside measurements with a resolution down to .1 mg.
&nbsp&nbsp
Measurement Assortment
Normal check methods evaluate PM from filter-based mostly time-integrated systems (non-isokinetic in this circumstance). The air stream stream charge (which is consistently altered/monitored to keep the preferred flow) is handed via a filter medium that collects the particulates. The filter is desiccated pre and put up sampling to eliminate all humidity and guarantee the alter in fat is only related with the particulates collected. Employing a laboratory gravimetric equilibrium, the big difference in pre and post filter weights yields the whole PM gathered. With a recognized quantity of air handed by means of the filter, yields the particle mass concentration (mg/cubic meter).
As an option, portable measurement analyzers sustain isokinetic sampling and constantly weigh the sample filter or plate.
To provide a basis for comparison, the two sampling methods had been operated in a aspect-by-aspect laboratory examination over different phases of burn cycles. Regular test approaches call for PM measurements to be sampled from a dilution tunnel, as in the schematic revealed to the right. The dilution tunnel mixes the exhaust flue gas with place air at a recognized ratio. Sampling in the dilution tunnel captures equally particulates developed in the course of combustion and these shaped from condensable products once the exhaust gasoline is cooled. &nbsp
&nbsp&nbsp
Conclusions and Next Steps
The outcomes so considerably illustrate&nbsp good comparative averages were attained in between common examination measurement approaches and the transportable measurement techniques, along with specific constant info (not shown listed here). An overall advantage noticed with the transportable measurement systems is the mass calibration uncertainty that exists with existing assessments techniques which do not evaluate mass immediately, as effectively as possible filter handling glitches.
For the duration of the WSDC this sort of a established-up noticed to the still left is not possible, therefore sampling will be performed from the very hot stack and with no scale. As a following step, the two moveable measurement methods will be run simultaneously with the traditional measurement strategy technique,&nbsp however sampling with the transportable analyzers will be carried out in the stack whilst the standard technique is completed in the dilution tunnel. As a end result, the moveable analyzers will not seize the semi-volatile (condensable) hydrocarbons* and is not completely the same measurement as with the recent dilution tunnel based mostly system. This will enable a immediate comparison for analysis of the strength efficiency and emissions functionality such as particulate (PM) and gaseous (carbon monoxide, unstable organic and natural compounds, and nitrogen oxides) combustion products observed in the very hot stack and dilution tunnel. This in flip may possibly support develop a correlation between the very hot stack vs. the ‘cool’ dilution tunnel sampling methods.
*The testo 380 does dilute the sampled air stream employing their aerosol rotating disc diluter engineering which separates the reliable and volatile particles for the duration of sampling. Tests with this device is prepared in the coming months, currently no knowledge can’t be described.
The Foreseeable future for These Instruments
This technology is presently currently being used to genuine-world particulate measurement and checking demands in Germany all wood-fired heaters are now required to be tested in the field every two many years. The substantial precision of the digital mass scales in these techniques can verify onsite mass concentration restrictions as lower as 20 mg/cubic meter, allowing these systems to provide measurements for compliance tests of reliable fuels [2].
These portable analyzers use a approach that captures real time emissions, much better characterizing the emissions through the melt away cycle and might as a result be used to address issues about how well take a look at approaches signify true area circumstances.
Each systems with the available application can log emissions above a single 2nd intervals. Data might also be transferred for extensive knowledge investigation.
The Wooden Stove Decathlon
The Wood Stove Decathlon difficulties groups to design and style and build wood stoves that are low-emission, large effectiveness, modern and affordable. Ten judges check and evaluate the 14 finalist stoves and announce a winner on November 19.
Cost-free and Open to the General public
November sixteen – 19, 2013
The Nationwide Mall
12th &amp Jefferson Push SW
Washington D.C.
at Smithsonian Metro cease
A unique thanks to John Ackerly, the President of The Alliance for Environmentally friendly Heat. With out his coordination all of this would not be feasible.


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