|This outdoor wood boilers in Morgan
County Utah was somehow found not
to be a nuisance by a County Judge.
Many jurisdictions in the Western US have “burn bans” that disallow the use of wood or pellet stoves when air quality is very poor, often in conjunction with weather inversions. Nuisance regulations, on the other hand, apply when one person is creating excessive smoke that bothers an immediate neighbor. That person may be using an EPA certified stove, an old stove or an outdoor or indoor boiler.
The Ringellman chart or scale was developed in 1888 and is still sometimes used and referenced today.
|The Ringellman scale was adapted by the US Bureau of Mines.|
* Existing sources outside special control areas. No person may emit any air contaminant for a period or periods aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is equal to or greater than 40% opacity.
* New sources in all areas and existing sources within special control areas: No person may emit any air contaminants for a period or periods aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is equal to or greater than 20% opacity.
* A nuisance is anything which is injurious to health, indecent, offensive to the senses, or an obstruction to the free use of property, so as to interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property. A nuisance may be the subject of an action.
* A nuisance under this part includes tobacco smoke that drifts into any residential unit a person rents, leases, or owns, from another residential or commercial unit. [There is no mention of wood smoke or opacity in the nuisance provisions of the Utah Code.]
* Certified wood heaters may be operated during a no-burn period provided that no visible emissions are produced after a twenty (20) minute period following start up or refueling.
* During a period in which the Director has not declared a no-burn, no person shall operate a solid fuel heating device in a manner which produces emission into the atmosphere if the emissions exceed 30 % opacity twenty (20) minutes or longer after ignition or refueling of the solid fuel burning device. Visible emission opacity shall be determined by an observer certified by the Director.
* During a green or yellow advisory, no person in charge of property shall operate or allow to be operated a solid-fuel space-heating device which discharges emissions that are of an opacity greater than 40 percent. This provision does not apply to the emissions during the building of a new fire, for a period or periods aggregating no more than ten minutes in any four-hour period.
* Upon a determination that a person has violated section 6.255 of this code, the city manager may impose upon the violator and any other person in charge of the property, an administrative penalty not greater than $ 500.
* After the first 15-minutes of start-up, smoke from the chimney must be at or less than 20% opacity (smoke should be barely visible looking at it with your back to the sun).
* Violation of City Code can result in a summons to appear in municipal court resulting in a fine of up to $ 1,000 and 180 days in jail.
No person may operate a solid fuel-fired heating device in such a manner that visible emissions reduce visibility through the exhaust for more than 15 minutes in any one hour by 50% opacity or greater.
* No person shall discharge into the atmosphere from any source of emission whatsoever any air contaminant greater than 20% visible opacity as determined by Test Method described in subsection A, for a period in excess of six (6) minutes in any consecutive sixty (60) minute period.
* Any emissions from portable, stationary, or motor vehicle sources in excess of 40% opacity, regardless of length of time, are considered excessive emissions.
* State law limits the density of smoke from indoor fires to ensure that people use clean burning techniques. This requirement is called the 20 percent smoke opacity limit. Opacity means how much your view through the smoke is blocked.
* 100 percent opacity means you can’t see anything through the smoke. 20 percent opacity means there is very little smoke and you can see almost perfectly through it. If you use dry enough fuel, the right equipment, and give your fire the right amount of air, there should be no visible smoke from your chimney or stove pipe–only heat waves.
* There are two exceptions to the opacity rule which allow you limited time for denser smoke:
• Starting the fire. You have up to 20 minutes every four hours.
• Stoking the fire. You have up to six consecutive minutes in any one-hour period.
|The proposed state seasonal
ban affects 75% of the Utah
This will impact about half of all wood burning appliances in the non-attainment counties and could contribute significantly to reducing wood smoke. Salt Lake County has nearly 102,000 wood burning appliances, with fireplaces accounting for a majority of that with 60,000 units, according to EPA figures. There are nearly 20,000 uncertified wood stoves and about the same number of pellet stoves and certified wood stoves.
|This stove inventory was provided by EPA who use a variety of databases and sources to estimate the deployment of wood burning devices.|
The current debate over wood heating comes less than 2 years after the outdoor wood boiler industry fought against Utah regulations that would prevent the installation of wood boilers on the Wasatch Front. That debate also brought national attention of industry who hired lobbyists in Utah. The industry effort to keep the market for outdoor boilers open in the non-attainment area was partially based on an argument that outdoor boilers were cleaner than wood stoves.
That case, like the current debate, involved questions of emissions data from test labs vs. emissions in the real world, and the likelihood that operators would be burning responsibly.
|Republican Governor Gary Herbert
directed his air high quality workers to prepare
a draft rule banning wintertime stove use.
|A sequence of public listening to on the
proposed ban have elicited above-
whelming common opposition.
|In mountain valleys, wooden smoke can
make up more than 50% of PM for the duration of
inversions.  In the Salt Lake region, its
much less than ten%.
|Salt Lake Town, throughout one particular of their
regular wintertime inversions.
fines to men and women who can’t work their EPA accredited stoves in ways that do not make them belch excessive smoke.  A compromise of limiting the seasonal ban to much less counties in Utah and 50 percent the length – Jan. 1 to Feb. 15th, as an alternative of Nov. 1st to March 15th – is an selection, but not a well-liked 1.  It could not be an effective a single, possibly.
✓ You can post remarks to the Utah Air Quality Board until February nine.  For a lot more data, click on right here.
✓ For media protection of the Utah public hearings, simply click right here.
✓ For the AGH position on the business reaction to the proposed ban, simply click on this Fb submit.
Monday, December 8, 2014
by David Brooks
|Tom Butcher from Brookhaven Lab,
second from right, tests an automated
stove from New Zealand. Ben Myren,
left, did R&D work on it.
I don’t think very hard when I light up the old wood-burning stove in my basement. Turns out, that might be a problem.
“Combustion technology is incredibly complex. Numerous chemical engineers, combustion engineers, mechanical engineers around the world are constantly trying to understand the intricacies associated with combustion. It is absolutely not what you and I would think – just light a match … especially when you want to get clean combustion and use wood efficiently,” said Rob Rizzo, manager of the Renewable Thermal Program for the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources.
Rizzo was among the organizers of the 2014 Stove Design Workshop held in November at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, the latest in a number of attempts to add some high-tech wizardry to that staple of New England life, the wood stove. (For details, see forgreenheat.blogspot.com/2014/11/rookie-wood-stove-makers-get-highest.html)
Why tinker with something as well-established as wood stoves?
Because, like me, most people don’t think too hard when using them, which makes them inefficient and polluting.
We use green wood or wet wood, and we fiddle with the damper in the wrong way, causing partial combustion and thus more pollution.
The Stove Design Workshop, like a national Stove Design Challenge in 2013 that featured two New Hampshire entries, wants to find technology that can better cope with our stupidity.
The five finalists in the design workshop used a variety of techniques to work around people, including oxygen sensors that control fuel-to-air ratio, a common emission-control technique in cars, and a New Zealand stove that has a “barometrically operated variable choke venturi tube” to control the amount of combustion air entering a stove, particularly at lower burn rates.
“The whole concept with the design challenge is to come up with solid-wood stove that eliminates the human interface. Basically hit a start button and walk away; that is the concept we’re aiming at,” he said.
This already happens with pellet stoves, of course, which is why pellets has led a wood-burning renaissance for building heat.
The drawback is that they burn pellets made of compressed sawdust rather than the wood I can snag for free off my property, especially after the Thanksgiving snowstorm knocked down so many big limbs.
The lure of free fuel means that a lot of people still burn non-pelletized wood for some or all of their heat, although it’s not clear how many.
I have never been able to find good data about people who use cordwood (a.k.a. “roundwood”) as their principal heat source, partly because it’s hard to pin down. I, for example, use it only as a minor supplement of the pellet stove in the living room and our oil-fired furnace.
Rizzo said he didn’t know any data either, but he said that wood stoves remain important, especially in western Massachusetts.
Just as important as convenience is cleanliness. Wood stoves can produce a lot of pollution, particularly fine-particle soot, that is a health hazard. This is particularly a problem around Keene, which has a lot of wood-burning stoves and a geography that traps air in certain weather conditions.
New Hampshire has used rebates to get people to turn in their old stoves for cleaner versions, although with limited success.
But those cleaner stoves aren’t all that great; they’re little more than old stoves with catalytic converters in the stovepipe. Hence the push to build a better mousetrap, so to speak.
“It’s exciting to see new ideas coming forward. We have some educated guesses but we need to do better,” Rizzo said.
“We need to collect more data, about efficiency, emissions, consumption volumes, and also source of wood, sustainability of wood source, quality of wood source. Because rural America is always going to be burning round wood.”
A Comparison of Eligibility Requirements for Stoves Incentive Programs
October 31, 2014
* This efficiency level was not measured or enforced in any meaningful way.
** This program only allows upgrades from lower to higher efficiency using the EPA default numbers.
*** MD and ME allow for professional inspection in lieu of professional installation.
**** No efficiency minimum; higher efficiency stoves get higher rebate amounts.
|Taylor Myers and Ryan
Fisher with the Mulciber,
the greatest rating stove.
|The Wittus crew with the Twinfire.|
|The VcV, wired to monitor
temperature in important spots
|The ClearStak staff with the
optimum for emissions.   It was a highly progressive entry, using dual cyclones, a pre-heated, constantly engaged catalyst and a fabric filter.  Its sensors and controller held the oxygen rates extremely steady, in 50 percent a percentage level. The technologies could be built-in into a new stove, or added on to an existing stove. The designers did not consider to optimize performance, which impacted their all round score.
|The Kleiss, all set for tests.|
The 12 member Organizing Committee oversaw building protocols, tests and scoring and included reps from Alliance for Environmentally friendly Warmth, Aprovecho Study Lab, Brookhaven National Lab, Clarkson College, Hearth.com, Masonry Heater Association, Massachusetts Department of Power Assets, Myren Labs, NYSERDA, US Forest Support and Washington Department of Ecology. The Committee is now contemplating possibilities for a 2015 Stove Design Problem.
Portion of the Workshop principles was a prerequisite that teams experienced to publicly share their check results, which is a essential component of the collaborative and instructional approach. For the duration of the Workshop, each and every group introduced their examination data to the fifty attendees who had the possibility to go over the benefits and give comments to the  team.  Unlike EPA test, which begins when the stove is currently very hot, we used a warm commence, capturing some start off-up emissions, we utilized cordwood instead of crib wood and we used higher humidity content material wooden. Be aware: any gram for every hour (g/h) references in the beneath test outcomes are not similar to g/h values from EPA check labs simply because we did not follow the Strategy 28 examination protocol.
Staff Displays about their Stoves
Each and every staff presented the concepts and systems in the stoves. For a brief complex overview of all the stoves with make contact with data for the Groups, click right here.
Throughout the Workshop, there were a series of expert shows and webinars about automation, standard stove technological innovation, public well being implications, air high quality, regulatory concerns and other related topics.
one. Dr. Tom Butcher, Brookhaven Nationwide Lab, Assessment of the Automated Stove Test Protocol (powerpoint)
2. Webinar with the five groups, hosted by BTEC.
three. Glenn Miller, Fairbanks Air District,  Technology Improvements vs. Actions Modification (powerpoint)
four. Ellen Burkhard, NYSERDA, Renewable Warmth New York (powerpoint)
5. Norbert Senf, MHA, Emission Tests of Masonry Heaters (powerpoint)
6. Gael Ulrich, Smoke Particle Formation Essential, (PDF)
Pictures: Day 1
|Ivana Sirovica, Jessica Peterson and Jeff Hallowell, from ClearStak Brookhaven Countrywide Laboratory.|
|Rebecca raking coal mattress to put together for the up coming load of gasoline. |
|Many thanks to John Pilger and Chimney Basic safety Institute of The united states and Olympia Chimney for donating pipe and installation!|
|Indigo Hotel in Riverhead NY – our foundation for the week|
|The Testo exhibits real time emissions, with leading line demonstrating particulate subject (PM)|
|Rebecca Trojanowski gets rid of filters. The dark circle in foreground are the particulates on a filter from the examination melt away that will be weighed to determine grams for every hour.|
|Even the kindling is very carefully weighed so that every stove will get the very same warm up rick.|