The rule turns into legislation on Friday, Could 15, but will not expect to see many, if any, adjustments in your nearby hearth store until finally Jan. 1, 2016.   Scroll to the bottom to see a timeline of implementation.
Wooden stoves: Shoppers will scarcely notice any adjust right up until 2020.  As of 2016, stoves need to not emit a lot more than four.five grams and right after May fifteen, 2020, two grams an hour.  The most significant around term modify is that the actually cheap, uncertified stoves will no longer be on the market place after Jan. 1, 2016.  (These stoves, typically manufactured in China, sold for $ 300 – $ 600.)
Pellet stoves: Buyers will not discover considerably change listed here both.  As of Jan. 1, 2016 all pellet stoves will have to be accredited by the EPA.  Some designs are also very likely to get a lot more productive.  In 2020, pellet stoves also have to emit no more than two grams an hour.  Most pellet stoves currently meet up with the 2020 normal.
Costs: There need to be no short time period price tag rises, but some companies say their prices may go up $ three hundred – $ four hundred in 2020.  Other folks say their prices won’t rise at all.
Retail “sell-through” period of time: Suppliers have until Dec. 31, 2015 to sell present stock.  Many stores do not carry something that can’t be offered below the new guidelines in any case. Beware of revenue this summer season and slide that are striving to unload inefficient stoves and boilers ahead of its unlawful to sell them!
Existing and next hand stoves: Existing stoves are not impacted by these principles, nor is the vibrant next hand marketplace for wooden stoves. States can regulate current and uncertified stoves and Washington and Oregon do not enable any person to set up an uncertified stove off the second hand market place.  All states enable customers to purchase and install 2nd hand licensed stoves.
Corn, coal and multi-gasoline stoves: Corn and coal stoves are not coated by EPA policies and can carry on to be marketed without any federal government emission regulation, so extended as they will not market that they can also use wood or pellets. Multi-gasoline stoves are no longer allowed.  Accredited stoves can only be marketed for the fuel that they are examined with, and there is not yet a check strategy for corn or coal.
Misleading promoting: Most companies have posted unverified and exaggerated efficiency claims on their brochures and sites.  The new principles specify how stove effectiveness is to be tested and noted, but its nonetheless mysterious if the EPA will crack down on the rampant exaggerated and misleading performance statements.  Blaze King and Seraph are only businesses that offer verified, correct performance figures of all their stoves to customers and the EPA.  Beware of any stove that advertises more than 83% efficiency.
Efficiency: The EPA will start to demand effectiveness tests and reporting, but ninety five% of existing stoves will not have to be examined until 2020, so handful of stoves will be required to publish performance quantities.  To day, most organizations nonetheless deal with confirmed efficiency as private documents.
New hangtags: The EPA is receiving rid of the aged hang tags that consumers have been accustomed to on the showroom ground.  Instead, they are issuing particular, voluntary cling tags only for those stoves and boilers that presently meet the stricter Step 2 specifications (2 grams and hour) or that have been made and analyzed with cord wood. This will support shoppers far more effortlessly recognize the cleaner stoves and people that are made to be used with cordwood – the same variety of gas that customers use.  (At present, all stoves are analyzed with 2x4s and 4x4s, which burn off very differently than wire wood.)
Carbon monoxide (CO): The new principles do not limit the quantity of CO that can be emitted but call for that it be analyzed and documented. As with effectiveness, it is nonetheless unclear if CO levels from existing stoves will be obtainable before 2020.
Stoves examined with cordwood: The policies established up an option, voluntary compliance option for Stage two emission stages of 2.five grams an hour for stoves examined with twine wood.  This recognizes leaders in the industry who are optimizing their stoves for using twine wooden and encourages other producers to follow their case in point.
Export stoves: US producers can continue to make and promote stoves with no emission controls or tests to nations that even now let this.  These stoves have to be labeled as an “export stove. Could not be offered or operated within the United States.”
Litigation: The deadline to file match over this rule is Might fifteen, 2015.  The major stove and boiler industry association, the HPBA, has indicated it will be filing suit, most likely above the cost usefulness of the 2020 emission requirements.  Air quality or environmental groups might also sue, claiming the new specifications are as well lax. Our lawful professionals say that a go well with from both aspect would be hard to acquire.
Boilers: Like stoves, boilers must fulfill Stage one emission boundaries by Might 15.  Retailers can still offer more mature, uncertified and unqualified boilers through Dec. 31, 2015.  In 2020, they have to fulfill stricter emission limitations.  Due to a schism between domestic boiler manufacturers and people importing far more superior European technologies, most examination labs are not willing to take a look at the imported units.  They may possibly face limitations to turning out to be certified by Jan. one, 2016.
Warm air furnaces: Furnaces that heat air, instead of water, got a reprieve from the EPA after intense advocacy by industry and force from Congress.  Small types have to satisfy Step 1 emission standards by May 15, 2016 and big kinds not until finally May 15, 2017.
Value: As opposed to stoves, possibilities for consumers will adjust much more, since the boiler furnace market had not been controlled and a lot of low-cost, lower-performance models were on the market place.  Prices – and efficiencies- are likely to rise substantially but running fees will be significantly lower.
Humidity meters: Furnaces have to appear with a free dampness meter as of Jan. 1, 2016.  (Some advocates experienced urged all stoves to appear with moisture meters.)
Over the centuries, wood stove makers have tried all sorts of designs to transfer heat to a room and to capture the imagination of consumers – or just their own imagination. Some emphasize design and beauty over function and efficiency. Others are both practical, efficient and the result of centuries of experimentation. And some are destined for the dustbins of the history of heat. For a detailed chronology of wood heating, click here. We hope you enjoy them as much as we did, and encourage you to send ones that you think should be included.
Ancient Greek clay anthrakia. Greeks experimented with designs to heat, cook – and to BBQ.
Troy New York, near Albany, was the stove building capital of the world in the late 1800s, when ornate stoves like this were popular.
|Vermont. Amen to that.|
This Russian masonry heater/bed will keep you warm on the coldest Siberian night.
Alsatian (French) stove with large exhaust gas heat exchanger. Stove makers have long experimented with expanding heat transfer surfaces.
The world’s largest wood stove. Michigan, USA
|Cat Tractor themed stove in Oregon|
Somewhere in Eastern Europe.
Somewhere in Western Europe. (Would you want this in your living room?)
Can the design get any simpler?
Dutch designers eliminated the need to cut your wood with this stove.
|A Swiss made “rocket” stove.|
|Winter inversions, caused mainly by cars
and trucks, often obscure the Utah legislature
in a cloud of pollution that can last days.
A bill was just introduced in the Utah House of Representatives that would mandate certain types of change out programs, set air quality levels that can be used to call no burn days and otherwise undermine the ability of the state to help move toward cleaner burning and cleaner air.
The key to reducing wood smoke in Utah’s populated and often polluted valley surrounding Salt Lake City is a genuine partnership between the states air quality division, industry and other non-profits and stakeholders. Ultimately, solutions are going to require funding, especially if a change out program is involved, which can be expensive. For any significant amount of money to be used for change outs, the Utah governor and air quality division should support the change out, not have HB 396 thrust upon them, which will tie their hands.
Utah Governor Herbert’s proposed seasonal ban was ill conceived and drawn up without sufficient consultation. HB 396 was similarly drawn up without sufficient consultation and will not lead to genuine solutions that can get solid funding.
Like most others, the Alliance did not support the seasonal ban proposed by the Governor, but HB 396 is not the solution. HB 396 was drafted by key stove industry members and reflects the interests of some stove retailers and manufacturers, but does not embrace many solutions which can benefit homeowners who heat with wood and pellets.
|This highly rated Whirlpool HEPA air
filter cost under $ 300.
|Fireplaces are much more likely to cause
indoor wood smoke problems than wood
stoves. Your nose is an excellent instrument
to tell if smoke is leaking into your home.
|Both old and new wood stoves can leak
smoke into the home. Its often the installation
and the chimney, not the stove, responsible
for leakage. A CSIA certified chimney sweep
is an excellent resource to find and help
remedy indoor smoke issues.
|Key EPA architects of this NSPS include
Greg Green, left, and Gil Wood, right and
Amanda Simcox. Gil retired on February 3.
High performance stoves: The EPA took some key steps to address the lack of recognition for high performing appliances. Notably, stoves that test with cordwood in the next 5 years can use a special EPA label that will alert consumers that the device is designed and tested for use like the consumer will use it. This shift is possibly as important than just lowering emission standards for wood stoves. Along these lines, the EPA is also allowing stoves that already meet the 2020 standards, to use a special label so consumers can more easily recognize these higher performing stoves. We are, however, very disappointed that the EPA removed the long-standing requirement that all stoves have a consumer hang-tag that helps consumers better appreciate the basic differences between all stoves on the showroom floor.
Boiler testing: Another positive step forward is EPA’s recognition of the European test method EN303-5 to certify European style indoor wood and pellet boilers that have been accepted by Renewable Heat New York (RHNY). Also boilers certified by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) will be automatically deemed EPA certified. This is another step to recognizing higher performance equipment. NYSERDA deserves credit for the R&D, test method and other funding that EPA and DOE should have been doing to develop higher performance equipment. These parts of the new EPA rule will help give consumers more options to buy cleaner and more efficient devices.
Stove emission standards: As expected, the EPA is staying with the de facto status quo for the next 5 years, at 4.5 grams an hour (g/hr). The 2 g/hr standard for stoves as of 2020 is fair and reasonable. As the EPA explained in the rule “nearly 90 percent of current catalytic/hybrid stoves and over 18 percent of current non-catalytic stoves” already meet the Step 2 emission limit of 2 g/hr. We hope that those manufacturers who have to redesign stoves use the opportunity to redesign to use cordwood and to reduce start-up and fugitive emissions. The optional Step 2 certification test for cordwood at 2.5 g/hr represents a very creative and positive approach by the EPA to move towards required cord wood testing.
Some independent stove and boiler companies played a vital role in broadening the debate and sharing key data sets that enabled the EPA to show that some stoves can already meet the Step 2 standards of 2 g/hr with cordwood. We are pleased that companies who participated in the 2013 Wood Stove Design Challenge helped the EPA and OMB understand that smallest manufacturers can undertake the R&D to make very clean and affordable stoves that operate well on cordwood.
Key issues not addressed: Some of the most important issues with wood stoves are difficult to address in regulations, such as indoor air quality from fugitive smoke and the ability for homeowners to reduce air-flow so much that the stove smolders for hours on end, which is often a nightly occurrence. Ultimately, we believe that some types of automation are needed to prevent the widespread consumer misuse of wood stoves. The attempt by the EPA to set a maximum emission level while the stove is on its lowest burn rate was a good start. We had urged the EPA to more formally address alternative tests for automated stoves that hold tremendous promise to reduce widespread poor operation by consumers.
Warm air furnaces: Delaying the standards for all warm air furnaces for 1 – 2 years was a mistake because some companies have little ability or intention of meeting the Step 1 standards. An interim measure after 6 months to distinguish between companies on their way towards meeting standards and those who aren’t would have been far better.
Exempt wood stoves: We are very pleased to see that the era of exempt wood stoves is over. About 1 out of every 3 or 4 new wood stoves sold in America has been exempt in recent years and EPA had considered a weaker standard for them, but is now holding them to same standard as all other stoves.
Masonry heaters: The EPA was not able to set standards for masonry heaters but we are glad to see that the EPA has charted a path forward to work with the Masonry Heater Association so that masonry heaters become a certified appliance category
Sell-through period: The sell-through period, set at 8 months through December 31st is fair for certified wood stoves, pellet stoves and qualified or EN303-5 approved boilers, but too long for exempt wood stoves and traditional outdoor boilers which should have come off the market sooner.
Electronic reporting: We were very glad to see that the EPA will begin electronic reporting for stove certification tests and provide more transparency for the public and access more data that is not Confidential Business Information (CBI) about stove tests.
Efficiency: Achievable efficiency standards are important in the near future and we are pleased that the EPA will finally require the manufacturers to test for, and report actual efficiency numbers not only to the EPA, but also on their websites. In practice however, many existing stoves many not have to retest for 3-5 years and it is unclear if they will have to disclose efficiency before then, unless they do it voluntarily. This is particularly important for boilers and pellet stoves that have a very wide range of efficiencies.
Renewable energy: We are very disappointed that the EPA did not mention the term “renewable” in this rule. The EPA Office of Air and Radiation should take into consideration that this sector has potential not just to make cleaner energy, but to use a renewable energy source and displace fossil fuels. Governor Cuomo’s Renewable Heat New York is investing tens of millions into the sector and integrates the goal of driving down emissions, driving up efficiency while replacing fossil fuels and offering homeowners an affordable, renewable heating source. In addition to setting minimum emission standards for lab testing, the EPA should adopt a more integrated approach to this technology that is being increasingly adopted not just by New York, but by other states as well.
In conclusion, the EPA crafted a fair and balanced rule overall and took some important steps towards testing with cordwood and recognizing those companies who take steps to build stoves based on how consumers operates them. In the long run, this new rule will result in cleaner appliances and a better foundation for renewable wood and pellet heating.
|Step||New PM emissions limit||Compliance deadlines|
|Step 1: All uncertified wood and pellet stoves (cat and non-cat)||4.5 grams per hour for crib wood test method
If tested with cordwood, emissions test method must be approved, and stoves must meet crib wood limit
|60 days after publication in the Federal Register|
|Step 2: All wood and pellet stoves (cat and non-cat)||2.0 grams per hour, or 2.5 grams per hour if tested with cordwood (test method must be approved)||5 years after publication in the Federal Register (2020)|
|Step||New PM emissions limit||Compliance deadlines|
|Step 1||0.32 pounds per million Btu heat output (weighted average), with a cap of 18 grams per hour for individual test runs (crib wood test method)
If tested with cordwood, emissions test method must be approved, and stoves must meet crib wood limit
|60 days after publication in the Federal Register|
|Step 2||0.10 pounds per million Btu heat output for each burn rate, or 0.15 pounds per million Btu heat output for each burn rate. If tested with cordwood; method must be approved||5 years after publication in the Federal Register (2020)|
|Step 1||Operational/work practice standards||60 days after publication in the Federal Register|
|Step 2||Emissions limit of 0.93 pounds of PM per million Btu heat output, weighted average. Cordwood testing is required for forced air furnaces||Small furnaces: 1 year after publication in the Federal Register (2016)
Large furnaces: 2 years after publication (2017)
|Step 3||Emissions limit of 0.15 pounds of PM per million Btu heat output for each individual burn rate. Cordwood testing required||All furnaces: 5 years after publication in the Federal Register (2020)|
The proposal by the Governor of Utah to ban the wintertime use of wood and pellet stoves was met with intense opposition from a large majority of Utah residents and the wood stove industry. It also underscored the need for Utah state agencies, the media, and the public to better understand the role of wood heating and its prevalence in the United States. This short paper compares census data of wood heating in Utah compared to the rest of the country.
As of 2013, 10,500, or 1.2%, of Utah residents use mainly wood and pellets for their primary heating, far less than the national average of 2.1%, according to the US Census. There are likely to be an additional 40,000 to 50,000 who use it as a secondary heat source, though the US Census does not track secondary heating. The EPA however estimates that there are about 93,000 wood and pellet stoves in Utah, some of which may not be used at all or only occasionally.
Utah is one of the states that buck the national norm, in that far more homes heated with wood and pellets in 1990 compared to 1940. Utah residents gave up wood heating faster than the United States as a whole, with the number of homes mainly heating with wood hitting a low point in 1950, two decades before the rest of the country. But between 1970 and 1990, Utahns embraced wood heating far more aggressively than the rest of the country. The number of Utah homes mainly heating with wood rose from 0.3% in 1970 to 3.2% in 1990, a high point that the state has not hit since then.
The rapid growth of wood and pellets in Utah since 1970 is likely due to many of the same reasons it has grown so quickly elsewhere: both gas and oil prices had been climbing, until gas prices finally dropped in 2008 and oil prices just starting dropping in 2014. And, the increase of wood and pellet heating may also be linked to an increased desire for household energy security by both conservative and liberal households, but for different reasons.
Median household income remained relatively static in Utah for most of the 2000s before they began falling in 2008 and rising again in 2012, compared to the US where incomes first decreased in 2007 and only started recovering in 2013. Often, more households turn away wood heating as incomes rise and this is likely a factor in Utah since 2012 as well.
Since 2005, the percent of Utahns using wood or pellet as a primary or sole heat source has ranged between 1% and 1.4%, and since 2010 has remained steady at 1.2%, significantly below the national rate of 2.1% that has remained unchanged since 2009. Wood heating peaked in 2009, at the height of the recession and dropped slightly as the economy has picked up.
Wood and pellets are the fastest growing heating fuel in Utah, followed by electricity, as it is the US overall. Wood and pellet heating as a primary heat source had increased nearly 40% in Utah from 2000 to 2013, slightly less than the nation overall.
Utah is quite different than national heating trends when it comes to gas and oil. Gas heating has grown 30% in Utah since 2000, yet has only grown by 4% nationally. This increase in gas heating may be tied to slower growth of wood heating in areas with gas lines, while wood heating remains robust in areas without gas lines. Accurate county data could confirm this. And oil heating has dropped far quicker in Utah than it has in the nation overall, although it has not been a very widespread form of residential heating in Utah.
Utah has the lowest percentage of homes heated primarily with wood in the West. The Census does not have county level data of wood heating in Utah, but typically rural counties have far more wood heating than more urban ones. And, lower income counties typically have more primary wood heating and higher income counties have more secondary wood heating.
EPA Estimates of Fireplaces, Stoves and Boilers in Utah
The EPA figures, above, estimate nearly a quarter million wood fueled devices in Utah. A majority of those are fireplaces and studies show that a large percent of fireplaces are never used or only used once a week, unlike stoves which are often used every day. About 93,000 units are stoves, nearly 16,000 of which are pellet stoves, 48,000 uncertified stoves (most made prior to 1990) and 26,000 are EPA certified stoves, made since 1990.
|This outdoor wood boilers in Morgan
County Utah was somehow found not
to be a nuisance by a County Judge.
Many jurisdictions in the Western US have “burn bans” that disallow the use of wood or pellet stoves when air quality is very poor, often in conjunction with weather inversions. Nuisance regulations, on the other hand, apply when one person is creating excessive smoke that bothers an immediate neighbor. That person may be using an EPA certified stove, an old stove or an outdoor or indoor boiler.
The Ringellman chart or scale was developed in 1888 and is still sometimes used and referenced today.
|The Ringellman scale was adapted by the US Bureau of Mines.|
* Existing sources outside special control areas. No person may emit any air contaminant for a period or periods aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is equal to or greater than 40% opacity.
* New sources in all areas and existing sources within special control areas: No person may emit any air contaminants for a period or periods aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is equal to or greater than 20% opacity.
* A nuisance is anything which is injurious to health, indecent, offensive to the senses, or an obstruction to the free use of property, so as to interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property. A nuisance may be the subject of an action.
* A nuisance under this part includes tobacco smoke that drifts into any residential unit a person rents, leases, or owns, from another residential or commercial unit. [There is no mention of wood smoke or opacity in the nuisance provisions of the Utah Code.]
* Certified wood heaters may be operated during a no-burn period provided that no visible emissions are produced after a twenty (20) minute period following start up or refueling.
* During a period in which the Director has not declared a no-burn, no person shall operate a solid fuel heating device in a manner which produces emission into the atmosphere if the emissions exceed 30 % opacity twenty (20) minutes or longer after ignition or refueling of the solid fuel burning device. Visible emission opacity shall be determined by an observer certified by the Director.
* During a green or yellow advisory, no person in charge of property shall operate or allow to be operated a solid-fuel space-heating device which discharges emissions that are of an opacity greater than 40 percent. This provision does not apply to the emissions during the building of a new fire, for a period or periods aggregating no more than ten minutes in any four-hour period.
* Upon a determination that a person has violated section 6.255 of this code, the city manager may impose upon the violator and any other person in charge of the property, an administrative penalty not greater than $ 500.
* After the first 15-minutes of start-up, smoke from the chimney must be at or less than 20% opacity (smoke should be barely visible looking at it with your back to the sun).
* Violation of City Code can result in a summons to appear in municipal court resulting in a fine of up to $ 1,000 and 180 days in jail.
No person may operate a solid fuel-fired heating device in such a manner that visible emissions reduce visibility through the exhaust for more than 15 minutes in any one hour by 50% opacity or greater.
* No person shall discharge into the atmosphere from any source of emission whatsoever any air contaminant greater than 20% visible opacity as determined by Test Method described in subsection A, for a period in excess of six (6) minutes in any consecutive sixty (60) minute period.
* Any emissions from portable, stationary, or motor vehicle sources in excess of 40% opacity, regardless of length of time, are considered excessive emissions.
* State law limits the density of smoke from indoor fires to ensure that people use clean burning techniques. This requirement is called the 20 percent smoke opacity limit. Opacity means how much your view through the smoke is blocked.
* 100 percent opacity means you can’t see anything through the smoke. 20 percent opacity means there is very little smoke and you can see almost perfectly through it. If you use dry enough fuel, the right equipment, and give your fire the right amount of air, there should be no visible smoke from your chimney or stove pipe–only heat waves.
* There are two exceptions to the opacity rule which allow you limited time for denser smoke:
• Starting the fire. You have up to 20 minutes every four hours.
• Stoking the fire. You have up to six consecutive minutes in any one-hour period.
|The proposed state seasonal
ban affects 75% of the Utah
This will impact about half of all wood burning appliances in the non-attainment counties and could contribute significantly to reducing wood smoke. Salt Lake County has nearly 102,000 wood burning appliances, with fireplaces accounting for a majority of that with 60,000 units, according to EPA figures. There are nearly 20,000 uncertified wood stoves and about the same number of pellet stoves and certified wood stoves.
|This stove inventory was provided by EPA who use a variety of databases and sources to estimate the deployment of wood burning devices.|
The current debate over wood heating comes less than 2 years after the outdoor wood boiler industry fought against Utah regulations that would prevent the installation of wood boilers on the Wasatch Front. That debate also brought national attention of industry who hired lobbyists in Utah. The industry effort to keep the market for outdoor boilers open in the non-attainment area was partially based on an argument that outdoor boilers were cleaner than wood stoves.
That case, like the current debate, involved questions of emissions data from test labs vs. emissions in the real world, and the likelihood that operators would be burning responsibly.